About Andaman & Nicobar Island

Andaman and Nicobar About this local sound (help · info)) are a group of islands at the junction of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea and is a territory of the Indian Union. The territory is 150 km (93 mi) north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) by the Andaman Sea. It consists of two island groups, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, separated by the 10 ° N parallel with the Andaman Islands, north of this latitude and Nicobar Islands to the south. The Andaman Sea is to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west.

The territory’s capital is the city of Port Blair Andaman’s. The total area of ​​the land territory is approximately 8073 km2 (3117 square miles). The capital is Nicobar Car Nicobar. The islands Andaman and Nicobar Command, the only geographical Joint control of the Indian armed forces.

The Andaman Islands are home to people not known Palaeolithic, the Sentinels, who have had no contact with other people.

Andaman & Nicobar Government


First inhabitants

The first archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2,200 years. However, genetic and cultural studies suggest that indigenous Andamanese may have been isolated from other populations from the Middle Paleolithic. At this time, the Andamanese have diversified into language groups, distinct cultural and territorial.

Nicobar Islands appear to have been inhabited by people of different backgrounds. At the time of European contact, indigenous inhabitants were the Nicobarese people, speaking a Mon-Khmer language; and Shompen, whose language is of uncertain affiliation. The two are unrelated to the Andamanese.

Pre-colonial era

Rajendra Chola I (1014-1042 CE), a Tamil dynasty kings Chola conquered the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to use them as a strategic naval base to launch a naval expedition against Sriwijaya Empire (a Hindu empire based on the Sumatra, Indonesia). They called the Tinmaittivu Islands (islands “unclean” in Tamil).

Colonial period

The history of European colonization organized on the islands began when Danish settlers of the Danish East India Company arrived in the Nicobar Islands 12 December 1755. On 1 January 1756 the Nicobar Islands have a Danish colony, first called New Denmark, [7] and later (December 1756) Frederick Islands (Frederiksøerne). In 1754-1756, they were administered Tranquebar (Danish mainland India). The islands have been repeatedly abandoned because of malaria outbreaks between 14 April 1759 and 19 August 1768, from 1787 to 1807-1805, 1814-1831, 1830-1834 and gradually from 1848 for good.

From 1 June 1778 to 1784, the Austria wrongly assumed that Denmark had given up its claim to the Nicobar Islands and attempted to establish a colony on them, the renaming Theresia islands.

In 1789, the British set up a penal colony and naval base on the island Chatham side of the Great Andaman, where today the city of Port Blair. Two years later the colony was moved to Port Cornwallis to Great Andaman, but it was abandoned in 1796 due to illness.

The presence on the territory of Denmark formally ended October 16, 1868, it sold the rights to the Nicobar Islands in the UK, which made them a part of British India in 1869.

In 1858, the new British established a colony at Port Blair, who turned out to be more permanent. The main objective was to establish a penal colony convicts right of the Indian subcontinent. The settlement came to include the infamous Cellular Jail.

In 1872, the Andaman and Nicobar islands were united under one chief commissioner in Port Blair.